Anastasia Balova

September 12, 2023

A-Z GIS Project Management Terms

Need a geospatial intelligence partner for your site project, but not sure where to start?

The use of geospatial data and technology, also known as geospatial intelligence, is being employed to support decision-making and problem-solving in various domains, including military and commercial sectors. One of the most significant advantages of geospatial intelligence is its ability to assist almost any sector in protecting biodiversity and reducing environmental risks.

Regardless of your industry or project, if you are working with an ecosystem, consulting with a geospatial intelligence partner like Galago by Ramboll can help you meet regulations for sustainable land management and biodiversity net gain.

If you are new to geospatial intelligence, we've got you covered with this A-Z quick reference guide:

Agile: A project management method emphasizing flexibility and adaptability, allowing teams to respond quickly to changes and challenges.

Accuracy: The degree of conformity between a measured or calculated value and the true value.

Attribute: A characteristic or property associated with a geospatial feature, such as population density or land cover type.

Basemap: A foundational map that can accommodate additional data layers, often including satellite imagery or topographic data.

Buffer: A zone or area around a geographic feature within a specified distance.

Collaboration: Stakeholders' ability to work together, sharing information and resources to achieve a common goal.

Cartography: The art and science of map-making, including the design, production, and interpretation of maps.

Data management: The process of collecting, storing, and analyzing geospatial data to support decision-making and project management.

Digital Elevation Model (DEM): A digital representation of the Earth's surface that provides elevation information for different locations, typically represented as a grid or raster dataset.

Environmental impact assessment (EIA): A process used to assess the potential impact of a proposed action or project on the environment, as well as identify methods to minimize harm.

Edge detection: The process of identifying boundaries or edges between different features or regions in an image.

Elevation: The height or altitude of a point on the Earth's surface, often represented through contour lines on a topographic map, and used in various geospatial analyses and modeling.

Feature: A cartographic point, line, or polygon object with a spatial location in the real-world landscape used in geographical information system storage, visualization, and analysis.

Field data: Data collected directly from the field through surveys, measurements, or observations.

Field data collection: The process of collecting geospatial data directly in the field using mobile devices, GPS receivers, or other tools, often used for mapping, surveying, or data validation.

Geographic information system (GIS): A system integrating hardware, software, and data to capture, store, analyze, and present geospatial information.

Geocoding: The process of converting addresses or place names into geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) to enable spatial analysis and mapping.

Heatmap: A visual representation of data density or intensity over a geographic area, often depicted using color gradients to indicate areas of higher or lower concentration.

Hydrology: The study of water movement, distribution, and quality in the natural environment.

Hyperspectral imaging: Imaging techniques that capture data in numerous narrow and contiguous spectral bands, allowing for detailed analysis of materials and objects.

Interoperability: The ability of different geospatial systems, software, and data formats to work together and exchange information seamlessly, enabling efficient collaboration and data integration.

Imagery: Visual data captured by satellites, aerial drones, or other tools used to support geospatial mapping and analyses.

Interpolation: The estimation of values between known data points based on mathematical algorithms or statistical techniques.

Joint operations planning (JOP): A process used to develop a common understanding of the environment and plan coordinated action among multiple stakeholders.

Juxtaposition: The act of comparing or placing different geospatial data layers side by side for analysis or visualization.

Key performance indicators (KPIs): Metrics used to track and measure progress to succeed in a project or program.

Kriging: A geostatistical interpolation technique used to estimate values at unobserved locations based on spatial correlations.

Land use planning: The process of determining the best use of land to support economic, social, and environmental development, conservation, and other community needs.

LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging): A remote sensing technology that uses laser pulses to measure distances and create highly accurate three-dimensional representations of the Earth's surface, often used for terrain mapping and vegetation analysis.

Monitoring: The process of collecting and analyzing data to track changes over time to assess the impact of activities or projects.

Metadata: Information about geospatial data, including its source, quality, and characteristics.

Natural resource management: The sustainable management and conservation of natural resources, such as forests, water bodies, and wildlife habitats, using geospatial intelligence to support planning and monitoring.

Navigation: The process of determining the position, direction, and guiding movement in each geographic environment.

Network analysis: The examination of relationships and connectivity between geographic features, such as analysing the most efficient routes or identifying critical infrastructure.

Orthophoto: A high-resolution aerial or satellite image that has been geometrically corrected to remove distortion, resulting in a true-to-scale representation of the Earth's surface.

Optimization: The process of making a system or process as efficient and effective as possible.

Orthorectification: The process of removing geometric distortions from aerial or satellite imagery to produce accurate and georeferenced maps.

Project management: The process of planning, organizing, and managing resources to achieve specific goals and objectives.

Photogrammetry: The science of making measurements from photographs to create accurate maps or 3D models.

Precision agriculture: The application of geospatial intelligence and technology in agricultural practices to optimize crop production, resource management, and decision-making, such as using satellite imagery for monitoring crop health or employing GPS-guided machinery for precise planting and harvesting.

Quality control: The process of verifying the accuracy and reliability of data and processes to ensure they meet specific standards and requirements.

Query: The process of retrieving specific information or data from a geospatial database or system by specifying search criteria or conditions.

Remote sensing: The science and use of technologies like satellite imagery and aerial drones to capture and analyze Earth data from a distance without physically being there.

Risk assessment: The process of evaluating potential risks and hazards associated with a project or action, considering spatial factors, and utilizing geospatial information to inform decision-making and risk mitigation strategies.

Routing: The process of determining the best or optimal path or route between two or more locations, often used in navigation systems or logistics planning.

Raster: A data structure that represents geographic information as a grid of cells or pixels, with each cell containing a value.

Spatial analysis: The process of examining, assessing, evaluating, and modeling entities' spatial features like locations, attributes, and their complex relationships and patterns.

Scale: The ratio between the size of a feature on a map and its actual size on the Earth's surface.

Satellite imagery analysis: The examination and interpretation of images captured by Earth-observing satellites, which provide valuable geospatial information for various applications, including land cover classification, change detection, and disaster response.

Terrain analysis: The study of the physical features and characteristics of landscapes, including elevation, slopes, and hydrology to visualize, model, or support decision making. Terrain analyses can provide tables, scatterplots, histograms, and maps.

Topology: The spatial relationships and connectivity between geographic features, often represented through vector data structures such as points, lines, and polygons, allowing for spatial analysis and network modeling.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV): Also known as drones, UAVs are small aircraft that can be operated remotely or autonomously. They are equipped with sensors and cameras to capture high-resolution imagery and collect geospatial data for mapping, monitoring, and surveying purposes.

Urban and regional planning: Urban planning is a technical and political process focused on developing and designing land uses and the built environment, including air, water, and all infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas. It can be used to support sustainable growth and livability.

Uncertainty: The degree of confidence or lack of precision associated with geospatial data or analysis results. It can happen when you opt for anything but using experts in the field.

Vulnerability assessment: The analysis of the susceptibility of a system, community, or environment to potential threats, such as natural disasters or climate change impacts, using geospatial data and tools to identify and prioritize vulnerable areas.

Visualization: The use of graphics, maps, icons, and other tools to communicate and interpret geospatial information and data.

Vector data: Geospatial data that represents geographic features using points, lines, or polygons, storing both their location and attributes, commonly used in GIS analysis and mapping.

Workflow: The sequence of steps and processes used to complete a task or project.

Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS): A satellite-based signal correction used to improve estimations of GPS positions by primarily removing atmospheric distortion.

Web mapping: The practice of creating, publishing, and sharing interactive maps and geospatial data over the internet, allowing users to access and analyze spatial information through web-based applications and interfaces.

eXtended reality (XR): A broad term encompassing augmented reality, virtual reality, and mixed reality used to visualize and interact with geospatial data in a virtual environment.

XML (Extensible Markup Language): A markup language used for encoding and structuring geospatial data and metadata.

Yield analysis: The study of potential outputs or the productivity of a system or process, often used in agriculture and resource management.

Zone analysis: The study of geographic areas based on specific criteria such as land use, zoning, and demographic patterns to support land restoration and management.

Zoning: The division of land into zones or districts with specific regulations and restrictions for land use and development.

Zoning regulations: The rules and guidelines that define land use restrictions and designations within a particular area, often represented through zoning maps, which can be analyzed and managed using geospatial intelligence for effective land use planning and development control.

By familiarizing yourself with these key terms and concepts, you will be better equipped to navigate and manage geospatial intelligence projects effectively. To find out more on this topic follow our work or request a demo.

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  • Brittni Engels

    Business Development & Sales Lead